第7课 - 搜索天体

出自指南维基

跳转到: 导航, 搜索

henrysting --22:00 2005-3-22 (CTS)

In the previous lesson we saw how to display information about any object on the map. That's a very useful capability, but SkyMap contains many millions of objects, and we may not always know where the object we want to know about is located in the sky. Another problem we have to contend with is the fact that most objects are known by many different names and catalog numbers, and the name we're interested in may not be the name which SkyMap uses to label the object on the map. For example, the bright galaxy "M86" is also known as "NGC 4406", "UGC 7532", "MCG 2-32-46", "CGCG 70-72", "PGC 40653", and "VCC 881", to name only a few of its numerous catalog numbers; if we read an article which referred to "UGC 7532", and then saw a galaxy labelled "M86" on the map, we probably wouldn't know that it was the same object! Fortunately, we don't need to memorize all the different names and catalog numbers each object has; SkyMap makes it easy to locate any object using any of the names that object may be known by.

上一课我们了解了如何显示天图上任何一个星体的信息。那是很有用的功能,但是SkyMap包括数百万个天体,而我们并不总是知道要找的天体在天空的哪个位置。另一个我们必须面对的问题是大部分天体都有许多不同的名字和星表编号,我们所知道的名字不一定是SkyMap用以标称该天体的。比如,亮星系M86又叫做“NGC 4406”、 “UGC 7532”、 “MCG 2-32-46”、“CGCG 70-72”、 “PGC 40653” 或者 “VCC 881”,而这还只是它众多星表编号中的一小部分。如果你读到一篇关于“UGC 7532”的文章,又在天图上看到被标为“M86”的天体,可能不会意识到它们是同一个天体。还好,我们不必记住每个星体的全部名称和编号,在SkyMap中,用该天体的任何一个名称都能很容易地在星图上找到它。

Searching for a planet, Sun, or Moon

搜索行星、太阳或者月亮

Let's search for a planet on the map. Run SkyMap, move the mouse pointer to the menu bar at the top of the SkyMap window, and select the Search/Planet... menu item:

让我们在星图上找一下行星。运行SkyMap,将鼠标指针移到SkyMap窗口顶部的菜单栏,选择“搜索/行星……”项:

Bm137.png

The "Find planet" dialog will be displayed:

然后就能看到“行星搜索”对话框

Bm95.png

Use either the cursor keys or the mouse to select any name in the list, then click the Goto button. The map will be redrawn centred on the selected planet (Mars in this case):

用光标键或者鼠标在列表中任选一个名字,点击“Goto”键,星图就会以所选行星为中心重绘(这个例子中是火星):

Bm138.png

The white square is called the "search target marker", and marks on the map the location of the object which has most recently been searched for. Scroll the map around the sky, or change the view level by pressing the number keys; you'll find that the marker will remain on the map. To make it disappear, select the View/Hide Search Target menu item, or press the “T” key on the keyboard.

那个白方框叫做“搜索标记”,它在星图上标出最近搜索的天体的位置。你会发现无论是在转动天图时还是在用数字键改变放大等级时,它都会在留在星图上。如果想让它消失,选择“察看/隐藏搜索对象”菜单栏,或者直接按键盘上的“T”键。


Now try displaying the information dialog for a planet directly, without having to first locate the planet on the map and right click on it. Display the "Find planet" dialog as you did before, select a planet (or the Sun or Moon), and this time click the Info button. The information dialog for the chosen object will be displayed.

我们可以直接显示一个行星的信息栏而不必先在天图上找到行星后单击右键。像上文那样弹出“行星搜索”对话框,选择一个行星(或者太阳、月亮),这次点一下“信息”按钮,就可以直接看到被选天体的信息栏了。


Searching for "deep sky objects" by popular name

以常用名称搜索“深空天体”

A "deep sky object" is any object outside our solar system except a star; the name is a "collective term" used to refer to such things as galaxies, star clusters, nebulae, and so on. All deep sky objects have catalog numbers - indeed, most have many catalog numbers as we've already seen! Many of the brightest deep sky objects also have "popular names" by which they're often referred to, such as "Andromeda Galaxy", "North America Nebula", "Blinking Planetary", and so on. SkyMap lets use search for deep sky objects using either a catalog number or a popular name.

“深空天体”泛指太阳系以外除了恒星的任何天体,它是一个包括星系、星团、星云等等天体在内的集合名词。所有的深空天体都有星表编号——事实上,正向我们前面看到的那样,大部分都有许多编号!那些最亮的深空天体还有常用“俗名”,比如“仙女座大星系”、“北美洲星云”、“闪耀星云”等等。在SkyMap中我们既可以用星表编号也可以用常用名来搜索深空天体。


Let's see how to do this. Run SkyMap, then press the number "5" on the top row of numbers; you'll now be looking at a fairly "close up" view of some arbitrary part of the sky. Let's look for the "Andromeda Galaxy" - a large galaxy visible to the naked eye in dark skies as a faint patch of "mist", and easily visible through binoculars from anywhere in the northern hemisphere. Move the mouse to the menu bar at the top of the SkyMap window, and select the Search/Deep Sky Popular Name... menu item:

我们来看看如何操作:运行Skymap,在上面的一排数字键中按“5”,你就能“更近地”看清一部分天空。让我们来搜索“仙女座大星系”——它是一个大星系,在足够黑暗的地方可以用裸眼分辨出一块暗淡的雾斑,在北半球任何地方都可以很容易的用双筒望远镜看到。将鼠标移到SkyMap窗口顶部的菜单栏,选择“搜索/深空天体常用名……”项:

Bm139.png

Doing this will display the "Find object by popular name" dialog box:

就会出现“按常用名搜索天体”对话框:

Bm140.png

The list on the left side of the dialog lists all the popular names which SkyMap knows about; use either the cursor keys on the keyboard, or the scroll bar to move up or down the list. On the right side of the dialog are three buttons:

对话框左侧的下拉列表列出了SkyMap中所有的常见名称,用键盘上的光标键或者鼠标滚轮可以上下移动列表。在对话框的右侧有三个按键

  • Goto, which moves the map to the location of the object currently selected in the list.

将星图转动到当前列表中所选的天体位置。

  • Info, which displays the information dialog for the selected object, leaving the map unchanged.

信息 显示所选天体的信息框,保持星图不变。

  • Cancel, which allows us to change our mind, and exit the dialog without doing anything at all.

取消 如果你改变了主意,可以退出对话框,不作任何改变。 We want to locate the Andromeda Galaxy on the map. Look at the list of names, and you'll see "Andromeda Galaxy" close to the top of the list. Click on the name to select it (or use the "down arrow" key on the keyboard), then click the Goto button. The dialog will disappear, there will be a brief pause while SkyMap draws a new map, and then the map will appear looking something like this:

要在星图上定位“仙女座大星系”。查看下拉列表,就看到“仙女座大星系”在靠近顶端的地方。点选这个条目(或者使用键盘上的向下箭头),点击“Goto”键。对话框就会消失,在SkyMap绘制新星图时会有短暂的停顿,随后星图就会显示如下:

Bm141.png

Note the large "oval" of the galaxy, with the name "Andromeda Galaxy" below it. As always, the search target marker - the white square - shows which object has been located by the search.

注意这个星系的巨大椭圆轮廓,下面标有“仙女座大星系”。搜索标识——那个白色方块——显示出所搜索对象的位置。

Try searching for some of the other objects in the popular name list in the same way; you'll soon find that some are shown on the map after the search operation, but others aren't. That's because the search operation always takes you to the position of the object being search for, but the current map settings often mean that the object itself isn't visible; we'll learn how to change map settings later.

在常用名列表中搜索其他天体是一样的;你会很快发现有些天体会在搜索后出现在星图上,而有些没有。那是因为搜索工具总会给你指出天体的位置,只不过有些天体在当前设置下是看不见的。稍后我们会了解如何更改星图设置。

It's very often the case that all we want to do is display information about an object, rather than actually see it on the map. To do this, use the search dialog in exactly the same way you did before, but this time, click the Info button rather than the Goto button; this will leave the map unchanged, and simply display the information dialog for the selected object.

我们通常只是想知道一个天体的信息而非它在天图上的位置。这时,使用搜索对话框的方法和刚才一样只是要点选“信息”按钮,而非“Goto”,这只会显示所选天体的信息,不会影响星图。


Searching for deep sky objects by catalog number

按星表编号搜索深空天体

Most deep sky objects don't have a "popular name" - if we want to find them, we need to know their catalog number, or at least one of their catalog numbers, since most objects have several. Most objects visible in small telescopes with either be in the "Messier Catalog" or the "New General Catalog", and will have catalog numbers starting in "M" or "NGC" respectively.

大部分深空天体没有“常用名称”,要找到它们,必须知道至少一个星表编号——大部分都有好几个。大部分小望远镜可见的天体会出现在“梅西耶星表”或者“新通用星表”中,编号以“M”或者“NGC”开头。

Let's look for the bright galaxy M86 which we talked about at the start of this lesson. If SkyMap isn't already running, run it, and this time press "7" to display a level 7 map of some arbitrary part of the sky. Select the Search/Deep Sky Catalog Number... menu item:

我们现在来找一下在本篇开头提到过的亮星系M86。如果Skymap没有运行,启动它,这次按数字“7”显示7等星的部分天区。选择“搜索/深空天体星表编号”菜单栏:

Bm142.png

Select this menu item and the "Find deep sky object by catalog number" dialog will be displayed:

选择这个菜单栏就会出现“按星表编号搜索深空天体”对话框:

Bm143.png

Type "M86" into the text field, then click the Goto button to locate the object. The map will be redrawn, with the white search target marker showing the position of M86:

在文本栏里键入“M86”,点击Goto键。星图会重绘,由白色搜索标识指示出M86的位置 :

Bm144.png

Remember that we said at the start of this lesson that M86 had many other possible names as well? Repeat the above procedure, but this time search for "UGC 7532"; you'll find that exactly the same map will be displayed - "UGC 7532" ("UGC" stands for "Uppsala General Catalog of Galaxies") is an alternative name for "M86". This illustrates an important point - when you search for an object, the name with which the object is labelled on the map will not necessarily be the same as the name that you searched for, but the search target marker will always show the correct position of the object.

在开头我们提到M86也有许多名称,重复上面的过程,但是这次搜索“UGC 7532”;你会发现显示的是同一张星图,UGC 7532(UGC代表Uppsala General Catalog of Galaxies乌普萨拉星系总表)也是M86的别名。这说明了重要的一点:在搜索天体时,星图上显示的名称并不一定就是搜索的名字,但是搜索标识总能指示天体的正确位置。


Searching for a star

搜索恒星

To search for a star, select the Search/Star... menu item; the "Find star" dialog will be displayed:

要寻找恒星,选择“搜索/恒星……”菜单栏,会弹出“恒星搜索”对话框:

Bm145.png

This dialog allows you to locate stars using many different methods; if you press the F1 function key whilst the dialog is visible, they will all be explained. We'll describe here three of the most commonly used methods of identifying stars. The important thing to remember about this dialog is that all that SkyMap takes any notice of is what's in the "Star name" text field at the top of the dialog - everything else on the dialog just provide a "shortcut" for entering information into this field.

这个对话框允许你以多种方式搜索恒星;在对话框可见时按F1,就会有详细解释。下面要介绍的是三种常用的搜索方式。这个对话框中最重要的就是顶部的“恒星名称”文本栏,其他的都不过是输入视场信息的快捷方式罢了。


Many of the bright stars in the sky have a "proper name". For example, the "pole star" is called "Polaris"; the bright red star at Orion's "shoulder" is called "Betelgeuse". The combo-box in the "Proper name" section of this dialog lists all the proper names which SkyMap knows about.

天空中的许多亮星都有固有名称。例如北极星叫做“Polaris”,而在猎户座肩头上的那颗最亮的红巨星叫做“Betelgeuse”(参宿四),这个对话框中的固有名称栏的下拉列表给出了SkyMap中所有的固有星名。


Let's find "Betelgeuse" on the map. Run SkyMap and display the "Find Star" dialog. Click on the "down arrow" at the right side of the proper name combo-box (the box showing "Acamar" in the picture above), and the list will "drop down". Scroll through the list until you find "Betelgeuse" (alternatively, type the first few letters of the word, and Windows will scroll the list to the correct point):

让我们试着找一下“参宿四”。运行SkyMap,激活“恒星搜索”对话框。点击“固有名称”文本栏右侧的下拉箭头(在上面的图中文本栏中显示的是波江座W星),列表会向下移动。滚动列表找到“参宿四”(或者直接键入单词的头几个字母,列表会自动滚动到合适的位置):

Bm146.png

Click on the name "Betelgeuse". The list will close, with the name "Betelgeuse" shown selected. Now click the "+" to the right of the combo-box. The name "Betelgeuse" will be copied into the "Star name" field:

点击“参宿四”,列表会自动收起,“参宿四”会显示为被选中。然后点击组合框右侧的“+”,名称“参宿四”就会被自动复制到“恒星名称”栏中:

Bm147.png

Finally, click the Goto button at the bottom of the dialog. The map will be redrawn centred on the position of Betelgeuse. As with all search operations, the search target marker will show which object has been "found" by the search.

最后,点击对话框底部的“Goto”按钮。地图将以参宿四为中心重绘。和所有的搜索结果一样,搜索标识将加亮显示找到的搜索对象。


Try searching for other stars with "proper names". You can either use the "+" button alongside the list of names to copy a name to the "Star name" field, or you can directly type the name into the "Star name" field - either will work.

在用“固有名称”搜索其他恒星时,你会发现用名称列表一侧的“+”将名称复制到“恒星名称”栏中和直接键入名称是一样的。

Most stars in the sky don't have a proper name. As you known, the sky is divided into 88 constellations, each constellation occupying a fixed "area" of the sky. The brightest stars in each constellation are labelled with Greek letters, normally called "Bayer Letters" after the man who originally invented this system of labeling stars. As a general rule (to which there are many exceptions!) the brightest star in each constellation is labelled "a" (alpha), the second brightest is labelled "b" (beta), and so on through the Greek alphabet (if you're unfamiliar with the Greek alphabet, it's shown in full in one of the appendices at the end of this manual).

当然,天空中的大部分恒星都没有固有名称。我们知道,天空被分成88个星座,每个星座都有固定的天区。星座中最亮的恒星以称作“拜勒字母”的希腊字母标出,他发明了这套标注系统。按通用的规则(每个规则都有例外),最亮的恒星标为α,第二亮的标为β,以此类推,按希腊字母表排开(如果你不熟悉希腊字母表,本手册最后的附录部分给出了一个完整列表)。


Let's now see how to find a star which is labelled with a Greek letter. We'll search for "a Orionis", which is another name for Betelgeuse. Display the "Find star" dialog as before. This time, we have to enter two items of information; the Greek letter, and the constellation. To enter the Greek letter, click the list in the "Bayer letter" section of the dialog, select "a" from the list, then click the "+" button alongside the list. The letters "alp" will appear in the Star name field (SkyMap uses the first three letters of the "English" version of the Greek letter):

现在我们来看一下如何寻找一个以希腊字母命名的恒星。我们搜索“猎户座α”——参宿四的另一个名称。和以前一样显示“恒星搜索”对话框。这次需要键入两条信息:希腊字母和星座名称。在对话框的“拜勒字母”的下拉列表中点选希腊字母α,然后单击列表一侧的“+”键,字母“alp”就会出现星名区域中(SkyMap用希腊字母英文发音的头三个字母代替)


Bm148.png

Next, go to the "Constellation" section of the dialog, select "Orion" from the list, and click the "+" button alongside the list. The letters "Ori" (the standard 3-letter abbreviation for the constellation of Orion) will be added to the text in the Star name field:

接下来在对话框的星座区域中,从列表中选择“猎户座”,单击列表一侧的“+”键。字母“Ori”(猎户座的标准缩写)就会被添加到星名区域的文本中。

Bm149.png

Finally, click the Goto button. The map (if it is not already doing so) will be redrawn, centred on Betelgeuse.

最后,点击“Goto”键,星图就会以参宿四为中心重绘。


The final common method of referring to stars is to use their "Flamsteed numbers". Flamsteed numbers are typically used for those relatively bright stars in each constellation which don't have a Greek letter associated with them. Let's search for the star "61 Cygni", which is one of the closest stars to our solar system.

搜索恒星最常用的方法还是使用“Flamsteed编号”Flamsteed编号主要用于星座中那些没有希腊字母编号而又比较亮的恒星。我们来找一下“天鹅座61”,那是离太阳系最近的恒星之一。


Run SkyMap, and select view level 4; this is the level at which, by default, Flamsteed numbers are switched on. Display the "Find star" dialog, and type "61" into the Star name field (there's no "shortcut" method of entering numbers!). Then, exactly as we've already done for Bayer letters, go to the "Constellation" section of the dialog, select "Cygnus" from the list, and press the "+" button; the letters "Cyg" (the abbreviation for "Cygnus" will be added to the star name field:

运行SkyMap,选择4等星星图,在这个级别,Skymap默认开启Flamsteed编号。显示“恒星搜索”对话框,在星名栏中键入“61”。然后就像我们按拜勒字母搜索时做的那样,在对话框的星座栏部分从列表中选择天鹅座,按“+”键,字母“Cyg”(天鹅座的缩写)将会被添加到星名栏。

Bm150.png

Finally, click the Goto button, and the map will be redrawn, centred on 61 Cygni:

最后,点击“Goto”,星图将以天鹅座61号星为中心重绘。

Bm151.png


Summary

总结

We've now covered the basic operation of SkyMap, and you should be in a good position to carry on "exploring" by yourself. The on-line help system describes what the program can do, but don't forget that all the "in depth" help on individual dialogs and menu items is in the "context sensitive" help. To get detailed information about a dialog, press the F1 key while the dialog is visible on the screen; to get detailed information about a menu item or toolbar button, click the {bmc bm0.png]] toolbar button and then click the menu item or button you require help on.

至此我们就讲完了SkyMap的基本操作,你应该可以自如的浏览了。在线帮助系统会告诉你这个程序能做些什么,不要忘了,存在于单独对话框和菜单栏中的“深度”帮助会提供更多的信息。。要查看对话框的详细信息,就在对话框出现在屏幕中时按F1。如果需要菜单栏或工具栏的详细说明,点击 工具栏按钮,然后单击需要解释的菜单栏或按钮。


We hope that you enjoy using SkyMap. Don't forget that information about the program, together with lots of "extras" to enhance it are available from the SkyMap Software web site at http://www.skymap.com.

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